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Afghanistan - HR & HR Software Guide

Country Overview:

Afghanistan’s GDP has grown by 64% since 2002 and the fiscal position is bolstered by continued revenue growth. The country’s major exports include natural gas, dried fruits, carpets, cotton, and wool. Since the end of Taliban regime, the infusion of billions of dollars from expatriates and foreign investors has enhanced the country’s growth during the last decade and half. The Afghan government invites foreign companies as part of its policy for growth, and foreign trade is an essential component of the country’s economy. The combined value of imports and exports is equal to 56% of the country’s GDP.

Currency:

Afghan Afghani

Principal Language:

Dari, Pashto

Government:

Islamic Republic, Presidential System

Capital City:

Kabul

Major Provinces:

Mazar-i-Sharif, Kandahar, Jalalabad, Kunduz, Ghazni

The regular work schedule in Afghanistan has 40 hours a week. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs can approve reduced or increased working hours during a day but the weekly average over a period of 1 year should not be more than 40 hours per week. The stipulated work hours for employees as determined by the government are below:
  • Employees in the age group of 15 years to 18 years – 35 hours/week
  • Pregnant women – 35 hours/week
  • Employees in hazardous activities – 30 hours/week
Also, workers in certain occupations such as teaching, health work and others work lesser hours based on respective legislation. Working hours can be reduced on account of the seasons of the year, the month of Ramadan, and severity of hot or cold weather. In the case of an occupation for which determination of weekly hours is difficult, the responsibility of calculating weekly hours is taken up by a relevant authority. Increase or decrease of working hours is confirmed by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs.

Overtime

Overtime is paid at 25% higher than the normal rate on normal working hours. Any work done on holidays is paid at 50% higher than the normal rate.

The following public holidays are observed in Afghanistan:

  • The last day of the week (Friday – Weekly rest day)
  • The first day of the [solar] year (Nawroz)
  • 28th of Assad (the Independence Day of the country)
  • 8th of Sawr, Victory of the Islamic Revolution of Afghanistan
  • The 3 days of Eid- ul- Fetar
  • 4 days of Eid- ul- Adhah and Arafa
  • 12th of Rabiul Awal, the birth day of the Great Prophet of Islam (Peace be Upon Him)
  • 10th of Muharam-al- Harram (the day of Ashura)

Some other days may be declared by the State of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as public holidays.

Annual Leave

In Afghanistan, a worker gets recreational, sick, and urgent leave every year:

Recreational Leave

  • A worker is entitled to 20 days of recreational leave with pay.
  • A worker aged less than 18 is entitled to 25 days of recreational leave.
  • Workers employed in hazardous work get 30 days of recreational leave.
  • Workers may be granted more than 20 days of recreational leave per year upon following the due legal procedures.
  • Teachers take leaves according to the rules of their educational institutions.

Sick Leave

  • Employees are entitled to paid sick leave of 20 days per year.
  • An employee can take sick leave for 5 days by giving a notice in writing, but for subsequent days, he or she needs to present a medical certificate.
  • Employees are allowed to use other leaves after using 20 days of sick leave during a year.
  • Employees hired during the first half of the year are entitled to full annual leave while those hired in the second half get 50% of annual leave.

Urgent Leave

  • Urgent leave of up to 3 days in succession and a total of 10 days in a year is allowed.
  • Employees can take urgent leaves for death of a close relative such as parents, siblings, spouse, child, father and mother in-law, aunt, uncle or on the birth of their child.

Maternity Leave 

  • Pregnant employees are entitled to 90 days of paid maternity leave, one-third of which is granted before delivery and the rest after delivery.
  • In the case of an abnormal delivery or delivery of twins or more than 2 babies, an additional 15 days of leave is granted.
  • The employee on maternity leave needs to report at her workplace within 5 days of the expiry of her maternity leave.

Other Leaves:

Marriage Leave

A worker is entitled to 10 days of leave with pay for marriage.

Leave for Teachers and Professors

Teachers and professors shall receive the usual annual leave if they don’t get the benefit of such leave from their educational institution.

Wage and Other Rights During Recreational Leave

The employer needs to pay wages and other allowances in advance for the period of recreational leave.

Pilgrimage (Hajj) Leave

  • An employee is granted a maximum 45 days of paid leave for the Hajj pilgrimage or pilgrimage of other sacred places.
  • The Ministry of Hajj and Religious Affairs needs to issue a certificate for the employee to receive the benefits of the pilgrimage.

Pension and Social Security

In Afghanistan, an employer is not obliged to make a social security contribution. The government pays into social security account of employees based on the amount of their contribution. The employer is also allowed to pay into the social security accounts of its workers.

Social Insurance Programs

Under Afghanistan’s Ministry of Finance, the social benefits available to employees include old-age, survivor, disability, sickness and maternity benefits. Old-age pension is payable to persons aged 65 or older with a minimum 10 years of contribution, or 55 years old with a minimum contribution of 25 years. The employer needs to contribute its share in these contributions and the value of benefit is equal to 50% of the latest salary.

Types of Social Securities

Benefits under social security include:
  • Food allowance
  • Transportation
  • Housing
  • Medical services
  • Lump sum payment at retirement equal to 10 months of remuneration
  • Child birth assistance
  • Burial assistance
  • Medical services for employee and his or her family members according to the financial capability of the Administration

Retirement Conditions

  • The usual retirement age is 65 that can be extended by 5 years with the consent of the employee.
  • After completing the default working period of 40 years, an employee is entitled to receive retirement benefits according to their latest wage.
  • Retirement benefits of government administrative employees, scientific researchers and workers of higher education institutions are regulated by relevant legislation.

Retirement from Arduous Work

  • On completion of every 5 years of arduous work, the employee’s working period for obtaining benefits is reduced by 1 year while for every 5 years of underground work or work considered harmful to health, the working period is reduced by 2 years.
  • The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs and Public Health determines the standards and rules regarding hazardous work.

Pension from Multiple Sources

  • An employee can choose to collect his or her pension payments from one source in case there are multiple pension sources.
  • Survivors of pensioner are entitled to receive pension payments from all pension sources.
  • An increment in pension of retired employees and survivors of the deceased is granted in proportion to a raise in the general level of wages.

Monetary Privilege of Education

The monetary privileges on account of completion of scientific and other forms of higher education shall be regarded as an essential part of wage in benefit calculations.

Supplement to Wages

Supplements are added to wages subject to certain conditions such as unfavorable conditions of work, requirement of high technical skills and other factors as stipulated by the legislation.

Incentive Payments

The administration can provide incentive payments to improve work efficiency and promote product quality through a system of remuneration and encouragement. The rules and provisions for incentive payments are determined by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in consultation with the employers, and also require approval of the Ministry of Finance.

Simplify workforce management in Afghanistan with Mihi HR Software.

  • Accelerate employee onboarding with established workflows and guided processes that allow your new employees to hit the ground running from day one.
  • Improve employee time tracking and leave management while ensuring compliance with local labor laws and work-time regulations.
  • Store, manage, and track employee data on a single, secure system. Improve access and visibility, while built-in guidelines help you maintain legal compliance and audit readiness.
  • Turn workforce data into actionable insights with extensive HR reporting and analytics. Make better, more informed decisions and accurately assess the status of your global teams.
  • Provide your employees with the support they need with 24/7 access to our Employee Helpdesk.
  • One HR software for your global needs
  • Ensured compliance with in-country employment and labor laws
  • Connectivity and integrations with ERP and Payroll systems
  • Better workforce data and increased visibility of global teams
  • Supporting 170+ countries and localized in 17+ languages
  • Improved employee experience with employee self-service functionality and 24/7 employee support

Contact Us Today





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    Abu Dhabi - HR & HR Software Guide

    Country Overview:

    Abu Dhabi is the capital and the second-most populous city of UAE. The city is the hub of UAE’s commercial and cultural activities and has the two-thirds share in the country’s $400-billion economy. Abu Dhabi holds 9% of the world’s proven oil resources and nearly 5% of the global natural gas resources. Besides oil and gas, retail, real estate, tourism, and infrastructure development are also thriving. The city has also set up free trade zones that are paving the way to substantial foreign investments.

    Currency: 

    UAE Dirham

    Principal Language:

    Arabic

    Government: 

    Local Government under the Department of Municipal Affairs

    Regular work schedule cannot be more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours in a 6-day week. The workday may be up to 9 hours for certain commercial establishments. During Ramadan, the daily work hours are reduced by 2 hours per day.

    Employers are not permitted to make their employees work more than 5 consecutive hours without a break, and these breaks are not added in the employee’s working hours.

    Friday is the regular weekly rest day for all workers except daily laborers. The UAE government’s weekend follows a 5-day workweek with the weekend on Friday and Saturday, but the private-sector businesses may have their own schedule.

    In the Abu Dhabi Global Market Square (ADGM), the following rules on work hour apply:

    • average weekly working hours cannot be more than 48 hours in a 7-day period unless the employee’s signs a prior written consent to work longer
    • rules on reduced Ramadan hours are applicable only to fasting employees in the ADGM.

    Overtime

    Employees who work for more than the regular number of hours are eligible to receive overtime pay that is 25% higher than the regular wage rate. The rate of overtime for work done between 9 p.m. and 4 a.m. is 50% over the regular pay.

    Overtime work is restricted to 2 hours a day unless such work is essential to prevent a substantial loss, serious accident or to avoid the impact of a serious accident. Overtime rules do not apply to personnel in supervisory or managerial positions.

    Holidays

    Employees in Abu Dhabi get fully paid day off during the following public holidays in UAE:

    • Jan. 1: New Year’s Day
    • Birthday of Prophet Mohammed
    • Al Isra and Al Mi’raj (Ascension of the Prophet)
    • Eid al–Fitr (2 days)
    • Eid al-Adha (3 days)
    • New Year’s Day (Islamic calendar)
    • Dec. 2: UAE National Day

    Employees receive a 50% bonus along with a compensatory day off or 150% payment of the base salary if they work on a public holiday.

    Annual Leave

    Employees can take 30 days’ paid annual leave after completing 1 year of continuous service with their employers. Employees who have completed 6 months of continuous service but less than 1 year can take 2 days of annual leave for every month of employment.

    Employers are allowed to decide on the date of commencing an employee’s annual leave and may break the leave into two periods. Carrying over unused annual leave is not allowed. In the ADGM, an employee is entitled to a minimum of 20 days’ holiday after completing 3 months at work. Employees at ADGM are allowed to carry over 5 days of leave every year.

    Maternity Leave

    Women employees can go on 45 days of maternity leave, which includes time off before and after childbirth. After completing 1 year of continuous service, an employee is entitled to maternity leave with full pay. Those with less than a year of service get maternity leave at half pay. After returning to work, the new mother is entitled to two 30-minute breaks for breastfeeding and care of her child without any pay deduction.

    In the ADGM, women employees are entitled to a maternity leave of 65 days for birth or adoption of a child provided they complete 12 months of employment. Payment for the first 33 days of the employment is in full and a half for the remainder.

    Paternity Leave

    Employees in the ADGM are entitled to 5 days of paternity leave that they need to take within 2 months of childbirth.

    Sick Leave

    Employees in Abu Dhabi are entitled to the annual sick leave of 90 days when they complete 3 months at work after the probation period is over. Payment for the first 15 days of sick leave is 100%, 50% for the subsequent 30 days, and there is no payment for the remaining leave. Sick leave benefit is not paid for an illness caused by the employee’s misconduct, such as consumption of narcotics or alcohol.

    Sickness benefit is payable even if an employee resigns before 45 days are over due to medical reasons. Employers are under a legal obligation to provide health insurance to their employees as well as their dependents in Abu Dhabi. In the ADGM, employees get 60 days of paid sick leave after completing 1 month of employment. Employees exceeding their sick leave for more than 60 days can be terminated immediately with a written notice.

    Other Leave

    All Muslim employees must be allowed an unpaid leave of 30 days for going to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage. Such a leave can be taken only once in the course of employment and not be deducted from a period of other leaves for which the employees are eligible.

    Pension for GCC Nationals

    Employees belonging to Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations receive a pension according to the scheme established in their own country. GCC citizens working in a GCC member country other than their home receive the pension.

    Health Insurance Plan

    According to the Abu Dhabi Law, subscribing to a scheme of health insurance is mandatory for employees and their family who are non-UAE nationals. It is optional for others. Employees must get adequate insurance coverage for those they sponsor, such as a husband sponsoring a wife. Employees may need to pay for up to 50% of their policy’s premium, and the same percentage of policy premium for their dependents (determined by their age). If an employer does not agree to cover these costs, it is mandatory for employees to pay for it from their income. The annual premium for basic coverage is 800 Dirhams and 5,500 Dirhams for employees above the age of 60. A maternity surcharge of 750 Dirhams applies to females in the age bracket of 18 and 50 years.

    Workers’ Compensation

    When an employee suffers from a work-related injury or occupational disease, the employer needs to report the police and pay the expenses of the employee’s treatment till recovery or declared disabled. Full salary is payable to the employee for 6 months until recovery, declaration of disability or death, whichever happens first.

    On the death of an employee due to work-related sickness or injury, the employee’s family is eligible to receive remuneration equal to 24 months of the employee’s wages, subject to a maximum of 35,000 Dirhams and a minimum of 18,000 Dirhams. If an employee gets permanently disabled due to a work-related injury, then he/she is entitled to receive the same amount as compensation the dependents would have received as a survivor benefit. Pro rata compensation is paid in the case of partial disability.

    Simplify workforce management in Abu Dhabi with Mihi HR Software.

    • Accelerate employee onboarding with established workflows and guided processes that allow your new employees to hit the ground running from day one.
    • Improve employee time tracking and leave management while ensuring compliance with local labor laws and work-time regulations.
    • Store, manage, and track employee data on a single, secure system. Improve access and visibility, while built-in guidelines help you maintain legal compliance and audit readiness.
    • Turn workforce data into actionable insights with extensive HR reporting and analytics. Make better, more informed decisions and accurately assess the status of your global teams.
    • Provide your employees with the support they need with 24/7 access to our Employee Helpdesk.
    • One HR software for your global needs
    • Ensured compliance with in-country employment and labor laws
    • Connectivity and integrations with ERP and Payroll systems
    • Better workforce data and increased visibility of global teams
    • Supporting 170+ countries and localized in 17+ languages
    • Improved employee experience with employee self-service functionality and 24/7 employee support

    Contact Us Today